Gardnerella, also known as Gardnerella vaginalis or bacterial vaginosis, is a common vaginal infection that affects millions of women worldwide. Despite its prevalence, there is often confusion and misinformation surrounding Gardnerella. In this blog post, we will delve into the details of Gardnerella, including its causes, symptoms, and treatment options, to help you better understand and manage this condition.

What is Gardnerella?

Gardnerella vaginalis is a type of bacteria that naturally inhabits the female genital tract. In most cases, it coexists peacefully with other beneficial bacteria. However, when there is an imbalance in the vaginal microbiome, Gardnerella can overgrow, leading to an infection known as bacterial vaginosis (BV).

Causes of Gardnerella/Bacterial Vaginosis

The exact cause of Gardnerella overgrowth leading to bacterial vaginosis isn’t always clear, but several factors can contribute to its development:

  1. Vaginal Microbiome Imbalance: The vagina contains a diverse community of microorganisms. When there is a shift in the balance of these bacteria, Gardnerella can thrive, leading to BV.
  2. Sexual Activity: While not considered a sexually transmitted infection (STI), BV can sometimes be triggered or worsened by sexual activity, especially if you have a new sexual partner or multiple partners.
  3. Douching: Using vaginal douches disrupts the natural balance of bacteria in the vagina and can increase the risk of Gardnerella overgrowth.
  4. Hormonal Changes: Changes in hormonal levels, such as those that occur during menstruation, pregnancy, or menopause, can affect the vaginal environment and make it more favorable for Gardnerella to grow.
  5. Use of Antibiotics: Taking antibiotics for other infections can disrupt the balance of vaginal bacteria, increasing the risk of BV.

Symptoms of Gardnerella/Bacterial Vaginosis

Gardnerella infection doesn’t always cause noticeable symptoms, but when they do occur, they may include:

  1. Vaginal Discharge: A thin, grayish-white discharge with a distinct fishy odor is a common sign of BV. This odor may become more pronounced after sexual intercourse.
  2. Vaginal Itching and Irritation: Some women with BV may experience itching, burning, or discomfort in the vaginal area.
  3. Painful Urination: In some cases, BV can lead to a burning sensation when urinating.
  4. No Symptoms: It’s important to note that many women with BV may not experience any symptoms, making it necessary to rely on diagnostic tests for diagnosis.

Diagnosis and Treatment

If you suspect you have Gardnerella or bacterial vaginosis, it’s crucial to seek medical evaluation. Healthcare providers typically diagnose BV through a combination of:

  1. Medical History: Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and sexual activity.
  2. Physical Examination: A pelvic examination may reveal unusual vaginal discharge.
  3. Vaginal pH Test: BV often raises the vaginal pH, which can be measured using a pH test strip.
  4. Microscopic Examination: A sample of vaginal discharge may be examined under a microscope to check for the presence of Gardnerella bacteria.

Treatment for Gardnerella/Bacterial Vaginosis usually involves:

  1. Antibiotics: Metronidazole or clindamycin, prescribed in the form of oral pills, creams, or gels, are common treatments to eliminate Gardnerella bacteria.
  2. Probiotics: Some healthcare providers recommend probiotics containing beneficial bacteria to help restore the balance of the vaginal microbiome.
  3. Lifestyle Changes: Avoiding douching and reducing the number of sexual partners can help prevent recurrent infections.


Gardnerella, or bacterial vaginosis, is a common vaginal infection that can cause discomfort and disruption in the lives of affected individuals. While it may not always exhibit symptoms, seeking timely diagnosis and treatment is crucial for preventing complications and recurrent infections. Understanding the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for Gardnerella is an essential step towards maintaining vaginal health and overall well-being.